Minggu, 01 Mei 2011
Concerning with pattern poems, according to Finch (2004), the patterns in these poems usually consist of grammatical items (adjectives, adverbs, verbs, etc), metrical frameworks, phrases, or sentence structures, though they can also include acronyms, alphabetical sequencing and other types of patterning.
Kinds of Pattern Poems
In “Writing Simple Poems,” Holmes and Moulton (2008) wrote that there are many kinds of pattern poems, among them are adjective poem, adjective placement poem, adverb poem, and contrast poem.
The adjective poem consists of six lines developing a series of adjectives to describe a single topic or action. It can provide good practice for merely identifying and creating adjectives without needing to worry about the appropriate order (Holmes and Moulton, 208:21).
Ricky Martin is handsome
Ricky Martin is handsome, smart
Is handsome, smart, popular
Handsome, smart, popular, Latino
One purpose of this poem is to describe a topic within a subject area (weather phenomena, animals, mathematical concepts) and it also can be use to describe a person or a character as in the example above, the poem is used to describe Ricky Martin.
To use adjective poem in classroom, Holmes and Moulton suggest a practical technique to apply it. Initially, tell the students that they are going to create a poem using mainly adjectives. To remind the students about adjectives, try to ask them to mention part of speech in sentences. Then, show students several samples of the adjective poem and ask them to identify the part of speech in each line. Next, ask the students to write adjective poem together with their group. In the final activity, have the students to read aloud the completed poem to their classmates. And finally, the students write their own individual adjective poems.
The other adjective poem is adjective placement poems. Because the order of adjectives in sentences varies among languages, English-language student must often be directly taught the preferred order of elements (especially adjectives) in a noun phrase (Holmes & Moulton, 2008:25).
I'm taking a trip to Hawaii
And I'm taking along my favourite things :
My sporty, new, brown Camel Active shoes,
A big, plasma TV,
One pack of Pokemon cards,
A comfortable, black, German sweater,
A pair of sexy, old swimming trunks,
And most important, my beautiful grandmother.
As it can be identified, the purpose of this poem is to describe events in the students’ lives and to introduce or reinforce vocabulary related to cultural and geographic sites. However when it comes to the poin of teaching, this poem can be used to introduce the correct order of adjetives in a noun phrase.
Applying adjective placement poem in the classroom, the teacher gives each group of students a three-set of cards consisting of adjectives and a noun. They are then given time to sort the adjectives out in the correct order and to explain what grammar rule is used. After some discussion, they are shown the correct way to order adjectives: To write the poem, students are told that they are going on a long trip and must decide what to bring to keep them happy. Then they write the poem with their group based on the correct adjective placement pattern that later on, they should perform it in front of others. In the final step, the students are supposed to write their own individual poems.
Adverb poem is similar to adjective poem in form in that it consists of six lines developing a series of adverbs to describe a single action (Holmes and Moulton, 2008:32).
Radio plays loudly
Radio plays loudly, brightly, wildly
plays loudly, brightly, wildly
Loudly, brightly, wildly, energetically
In my room
And as in adjective poems, the purpose of this poem is to describe a topic within a subject area (weather phenomena, animals, mathematical concepts) and it also can be use to describe a person or a character.
In teaching adverb poem, the class may firstly focus on adverbs and how they are used to modify verbs. After the class discussion, they are shown the poem pattern which is very similar to the adjective poem and then ask them to identify the part of speech in each line. Next, students write the adverb poem based on the pattern given with their group. As the students, finish their writing, have them to read aloud in front of their classmates. In the further, the students write their own poems individually
The contrast poem allows students to practice the use of linking verbs followed by adjectives. Using complete sentences, students describe a given topic by linking descriptive characteristics to the topic. Generally, the poem is four lines, with the first three lines being similar characteristics or traits and the last lines being an opposite characteristics or trait. The poem may be rhymed or unrhymed (Holmes and Moulton, 2008:78).
(1) A cat is friendly
A cat is cute
A cat is loyal
But a cat isn’t human
(2) Babies look cute
Babies look sweet
Babies look funny
But they don’t look mean
This poem, excellent for teaching attributes and nonattributes as well as synonims and antonyms, can be varied by changing the verb(s) in the stem(s). While the basic pattern uses linking verbs and encourages the use of adjectives, variations can include such stems as verb has, does, and changes and followed by noun or noun phrase.
A bicycle has two wheels
A bicycle has a seat
A bicycle has a set of brakes
But a bicycle doesn’t have feet
The purpose of this poem is obvious that it is used to analyze groups or classes of animals, plants, and inanimate objects by having students identify their characteristics (attributes) and noncharacteristics (nonattributes). This poem may also be used to summary a past event or story plot.
The practical suggestion of this poem to be applied in the classroom is initially, the students are asked to list the attributes or characteristic of an item. After that, they are asked to list the characteristic which do not belong to the item. The teacher writes down the list of characteristics of the item the students have mentioned before. Then, the pattern poems are shown to the students and explained how the first three lines are characteristics of the topic but the last line is something that is not the characteristic. After students understand the pattern of the poems, the students with their group make a contrast poem. Next, the students perform it in front of the class. In the end, they write the poem individually while the teacher monitors and helps their difficulties as necessary.